Cyanosis refers to the bluish skin color attributable most often to the presence of desaturated hemoglobin ( 5g/dl ). Primary etiologies include respiratory, cardiac, circulatory and nervous system disorders, as well as abnormal hemoglobin.
1. Lung disease
Newborn: Lung hypoplasia , Diaphragmatic hernia, respiratory distress syndrome, transient tachypnea of the newborn, Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, Pulmonary interstitial emphysema, Congenital adematoid malformation, Meconium aspiration.
Infectious: Pneumonia, Pneumonitis, Bronchiolitis.
Infiltrative disease: Pulmonary hemosiderosis, sarcoidosis
2. Airway abnormalities or Obstruction
Congenital: choanal atresia, macroglossia, micrognathia, laryngeal web, tracheal stenosis, vascular ring, tracheoesophageal fistula.
Infectious: Acute epiglottitis, croup, retropharyngeal abscess, laryngospasm.
Traumatic: Vocal cord injury, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum
Others: lymphoma, cystic hygroma, goiter, laryngeal hemangioma or neoplasm, foreign body, obesity.
Pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, vocal cord injury.
Pulmonary Vascular Diseases
1. Primary pulmonary hypertension
Cyanosis requires a right to left shunt at the atrial or ductal level unless lung disease is present.
2. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation
Idiopathic or associated with congenital heart, hepatic or portal disease.
1. Cyanotic congenital heart diseases