Mar 142014
 

vitiligo in childrenDefinition of Vitiligo:

It is a type of skin disorder in which there is a loss of skin pigment or color which leads to white patches all over the body.

Causes:

The exact reason what causes vitiligo to develop is still unknown but research shows that certain factors like autoimmune disorder, stressful event, harm to skin due to sunburn or cut, exposure to certain chemicals or a viral cause may be involved.

Pathophysiology:

Melanocytes are the cells located deep within the epidermis and are responsible for producing melanin which gives gives skin its color and helps protect it from the sun. Vitiligo develops when these skin cells suddenly stop producing melanin. Initially the effected skin gets lighter in color but eventually it spreads to cover a much larger area producing depigmented spots. It can effect any part of the body.

It is impossible to predict how much of the skin can be affected. In the majority of cases, the affected areas remain affected for the rest of the person’s life.

Clinical Features:

  • Vitiligo results in depigmented, or white, patches of skin in any location on the body.
  • Vitiligo can be focal and localized to one area, or it may affect several different areas on the body.
  • Although kids of all races are affected equally, spots tend to be more visible on those with darker skin.
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    Sometimes kids with vitiligo have other symptoms, such as premature graying of the hair or a loss of pigment on the lips, since pigment cells are found in these places, too.

Diagnosis:

Diagnosis is usually made by careful history and physical examination. Continue reading »

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Jul 262013
 

Important Points To Remember Regarding Neonatal DermatosesSkin disorders are one of the most common problems in pediatrics. Never underestimate parental concerns about their child’s skin. Unlike many disease processes, the skin is visible and noticeable to parents and others. Examination of the skin requires observation and palpation of the entire skin surface under good light. Do not forget to look at the eyes and mouth for mucous membrane involvement. Examination should include onset, duration, and inspection of a primary lesion. It is also important to note secondary changes, morphology, and distribution of the lesions.

Neonatal Dermatoses

1. Cutis Marmorata

Transient, blanchable, reticulated mottling occurs on the skin exposed to a cool environment.
No treatment is necessary; the condition generally Continue reading »

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Aug 272012
 

Skin Erythemas In ChildrenThe word Erythema is derived from the greek word erythros that means redness of the skin. It may occur with skin injury, infection or inflammation. Erythema disappears with finger pressure (blanching), while purpura or bleeding in the skin and pigmentation do not. There are few conditions that needs a short discription here:

1. Erythema Multiforme

Acute self limiting onset of symmetrical fixed red papules , some of which form target lesions. May blister. Can show koebner phenomenon. May involve lips, buccal mucosa, and tongue.

Causes: the causes of erythema multiforme includes:

  • Infections like herpes simplex virus, mycoplasma, EBV, Chylamydiae
  • Drugs like sulphonamides, penicillin
  • Collagen diseases like SLE, polyarteritis nodosa
  • Underlying malignancy

2. Steven- Johnson syndrome

Causes are same as for erythema multiforme. Other features include

  • Severe erosions of at least two mucosal surfaces .
  • Prodromal respiratory illness.
  • Extensive necrosis of lips and mouth.
  • Purulent conjunctivitis
  • Variable skin involvement- red macules, bullae, skin necrosis and denudation.

3. Erythema nodosum

Nodular, erythematous eruption on extensor aspects of legs , less commonly on thighs and forearms. Regresses to bruises. May last for 3 to 6 weeks.

Causes: may include

  • Infections ; organisms mostly involved are streptococcus, salmonella, yersinea, tuberculosis, chlamydia, EBV etc
  • Gut disorders like ulcerative colitis and crohn’s disease
  • Malignancy like leukemias and lymphomas
  • Drugs e.g sulphonamides

4. Erythema Marginatum 

Annular migratory erythema found in 10% of cases of rheumatic fever. Recurrent crops of lesions appear weekly. Associated with active cardiac disease. Continue reading »

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