These result from flow through a normal heart, vessels, and valves.
Risk Factors/Etiology-More than 30% of children from ages 3-7 may have an innocent
murmur heard at some time in their lives.
– Usually heard on routine physical examination; also easily heard during fever,
infection, or anxiety
– Never diastolic
– Never greater than grade 2/6
– Soft, vibratory, and musical at the left lower midsternum
Treatment-reassurance of parents and patient recommended
– Pulmonary flow (higher pitched; heard in the second left parasternal space with
patient lying down)
– Venous hum (heard in the neck or anterior chest); disappears with compression of
the jugular vein